Mangrove and freshwater swamp forests predominate on the coast, but then give way to a strip of forest rainforest, in which tree species are used are kaya (mahogany), high chlorophore and hard resin triplochiton. The oil palm is found wild in the humid rainforest; in densely populated areas, the shrub thickets of this palm have displaced the forest. In more northern regions, the forest is thinned out and replaced by tall grasses. This is the Guinean savannah, in which trees such as baobab, pseudoacacia and tamarind grow. More open savannahs are found north of the line marking the northern limit of root crop cultivation, and desert landscapes predominate in the far northeast. Acacia (a source of gum arabic) and mimosa are common there.
Savannah and tropical forests are also characteristic of Nigeria. Once humid tropical forests occupy most of its territory, but now they are common only in the Primorskaya Plain and in river valleys. In the north of the forest zone, deciduous dry tropical forests are widespread. Almost half of the country’s territory is occupied by high-grass (humid Guinean) savanna, alternating with areas of park savannas (with sparse trees – kaya, isoberlinia, mitragina). To the north of the high-grass savanna zone, there is a dry Sudanese savanna with characteristic umbellate acacias, baobabs and thorny bushes. In the extreme northeast of the country, the so-called Sahelian savannah with sparse vegetation is spread. And only on the shores of Lake Chad – an abundance of lush greenery, thickets of reeds and papyrus.
Equally diverse is the fauna preserved in national parks and reserves (in particular, in the Yankari reserve, on the Bauchi plateau). The placement of animals depends on the vegetation. In the southern swamps and forests crocodiles, monkeys and snakes live, while in the north there are antelopes (several species), camels, hyenas, sometimes giraffes and lions are found. Other animals that characterize rainforests and wet savannas are elephants, gazelles, gorillas, and leopards. The rivers are home to numerous species of fish, crocodiles and hippos. The variety of birds is striking, especially along the forest edges. African bustards, vultures, kites, hawks, snipes, quails, pigeons, ostriches and parakeets live here.