It is rather difficult to give a short and at the same time complete definition of the concept of “tourism”, out of the multitude of functions performed and a large number of forms of manifestation.
Travel is movement through any territory, water area for the purpose of studying them, as well as for general educational, cognitive, sports and other purposes. Until the 18th and 19th centuries. Information about certain countries (their nature, population, history, economy), the general nature and outline of the Earth’s surface.
Note the definition of “sporting” goals. At the beginning of work on this article, I was ready to challenge this task, which in its meaning is more suitable for the definition of tourism. Having carefully studied what the generally recognized travelers, such as Fedor Konyukhov and Thor Heyerdahl, do, admit that the sports component has the right to be, because does not deny the fact of the surrounding world, as well as the deepening of a person’s knowledge of himself. For example, overcoming the ocean, traveling along ancient caravan routes, conquering mountain peaks, geographical (poles) – this is what modern travelers do. At the same time, no one calls them tourists, although they reward them with marks for achievements in sports tourism.
Tourism (French. Tour – tour, walk, trip) – travel (trip, hike) in free time, one of the types of outdoor activities. Depending on the purpose of travel, tourism is divided into: cognitive (excursion) – visiting something attractive places, viewing natural, natural, etc. on the main; sports tourism – participation in sports events; amateur – hunting, fishing, etc. the so-called suburban tourism – massive short-term trips of large groups, individuals and individuals out of town, including to special recreation areas; social tourism – participation in social events; religious – visiting “holy” places, etc.
Logic and intuition force us to disagree with many definitions: a business trip cannot be considered tourism, it cannot be called anything other than a business trip. A funny businessman to call a tourist! For those who do not like the Russian language, let me remind you that there is a much more appropriate term for expressing this idea – a business trip. Social tourism is the same. And “religious tourism” is actually called a pilgrimage, but for those who do not perform cult acts (worship), the definition of excursion tourism is more appropriate!
According to the definition adopted by the UN in 1954, tourism is an active vacation that affects health promotion, physical development of a person, associated with movement outside the permanent place of residence.
In the materials of the World Conference on Tourism, held in 1981, the following definition is: tourism is one of the types of active recreation, which is travel made in order to learn about certain spring flowers, new countries and compatible in some countries with elements of sports.
In 1993, the Commission broadened its definition: tourism is the activity of persons who travel and find a stay in places outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding one consecutive year, with the help of business and other purposes.
Thus, tourism is understood as travel outside the permanent residence for the purpose of recreation, entertainment and other purposes.